TCP/IP stands for Transmission
Control Protocol and Internet Protocol
and it is a communication standard that defines
how data travels on the internet and how network/communication
devices communication with each other. TCP and IP were
developed by a department of defense (DOD) in a research
project to connect the number of networks by different
vendors to form a big network of networks (The Internet).
It was originally successfully because of the services
it gave, which everyone wanted to use such as file transfer,
electronic mail, remote logon across a very large number
of clients and server system. Several computers in a
small network can use TCP/IP to communicate with each
other. The IP component of the TCP/IP suites provides
the routing between the two locally or remote computers.
forwards each packet based on a four byte, 32 bits address.
TCP is responsible for verifying the correct delivery
of data from the client to server. TCP also supports
to detect the errors in the transmission and also triggers
the data to retransmit correctly.TCP/IP helps in transferring
the data on the network and on the internet. Each network
operating systems that have their own protocols must
support TCP/IP too. All the computers in a network must
follow the rules to communication with each other.
is a not a single protocol but it is a suite of the
protocols. There are the numerous protocols in the TCP/IP
suite such as TCP, UDP, ICMP, DHCP, IMAP, HTTP, HTTPS,
SSL, SMTP and many others.
Protocol is a connectionless protocol that is used to
communicate between the two computers. IP does not occupy
the communication line between the two computers. With
the IP communication, data is broken into the smaller
pieces called packets, and these packets communicate
between the two locally or remotely connected devices
in a computer network or via internet. IP is also responsible
for routing the packets to its destination. Routers
are responsible for routing the packets towards its
destination when a computer sends packets to an IP router.
Data is routed towards its destination is all by a router.
Router works as a post office.
TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol)
work together in which TCP takes care communication
between the application software i.e browsers whereas
IP takes care of the communication between the computers.
TCP breaks the data into smaller packets before they
can be sent and IP sends the packets to the receivers.
computer in a network or on internet must have a unique
IP address before it can communicate with the other
computer. The packets must have the address of the destination
computers or devices. Each IP address is composed of
32 bits and 4 octets each packet must have an address
before it can be sent to another computer.
is an IP address 100.100.100.10 and this website http://www.xyz.com
might have mapped with the same IP address. Without
a unique IP address the communication on the internet
is impossible. The numbers in the address must range
between 0 and 255 in four period separated portions.
Each IP address consists of 32 bits and 32 bits are
consisting of 4 bytes. A computer byte can contain 256
different values e.g 00000000, 00100010, 00000111, 11111000,
01010101, 001100110 and up to 11111111.
names are the unique identifier of a website because
12 digits numbers are difficult to remember. The name
used for the web address is called a domain name e.g
www.google.com, www.msn.com, www.yahoo.com all are domain
names and comparatively are easy to remember instead
of 12 digits numbers like, 18.104.22.168, 100.100.100.101
and 22.214.171.124. When you type a domain name in your
web browser the domain name is translated into IP address
by the DNS server, which is managed by your local ISPs
or your corporate DNS servers.
over the world a larger number of the DNS servers are
connected with each other some are primary DNS servers,
secondary DNS servers, Master DNS servers and Root DNS
servers. When a new domain is registered by a domain
registrar with associated TCP/IP address then DNS servers
from all over the world are updated.
TCP/IP is a large collection of the different communication
Family of Protocols
is a large collection of different communication protocols
based upon the two original protocols TCP and IP. Each
protocol in the TCP/IP suite is responsible for the
different communication tasks. HTTP is responsible for
the communication between the web server and the web
browser. It sends requests from the client (browser)
to web server and returning the web pages to the client.
is responsible for the secure communication between
the web browser and the web server. HTTPS usually handles
the credit card transactions and other sensitive and
secure data. SSL is responsible for the encryption of
the data for the secure communication. SMTP (Simple
mail transfer protocol) is responsible for sending the
emails. MIME (Multi purpose Internet mail extension)
is responsible for communicating the multimedia data
such as, voice, video, graphics etc. IMAP (Internet
Message Access Protocol) is responsible for storing
and retrieving the emails.
(post office protocol) is used for downloading the emails
from the email server to the personal computer. FTP
(File transfer protocol) it takes cares of transferring
the files between the computers. NTP (Network time protocol)
is used to synchronize the time between the networks.
DHCP (Dynamic host configuration protocol) is responsible
for assigning the IP address dynamically to the network
computers. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
is used for administration of a computer network.
(Light weight directory access protocol) is used for
storing the names and email addresses on the internet
and also communicating with the Active directory in
computer network. ARP (Address resolution protocol)
is used to find the hardware address of a computer based
on the IP address. Boot P protocol is used for starting
computers in a network. PPTP (Point to point tunneling
protocol) is used to make a secure tunnel in the private
networks such as VPN.
is the Internet Communication Protocol.
protocol is a set of rules, agreed upon methods or a
communication language, which both computers understand
and agree upon. TCP/IP defines the rules to communicate
over the internet. Internet browsers and Internet servers
uses TCP/IP to communicate on the internet Web browsers,
Web servers, Email programs and internet address all
follow TCP/IP. An IP address is a part of the TCP/IP